Hydrocephalus can be treated with two way which are:
1) Shunt placement
2) Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy
A shunt drains excess cerebrospinal fluid from the brain to another part of the body, such as the abdomen, where it can be more easily absorbed.
- The surgical insertion of drainage system called shunt is a treatment for hydrocephalus disease. A shunt is a flexible but sturdy plastic tube.
- A shunt system consist of shunt, a catheler, and a valve. Catheler have two end, one of the end of catheler are placed within a ventricle inside the brain or in the CSF outside the spinal cord.
- The other one end of catheler place inside the body, usually it placed within the abdominal cavity. However, it also can be placed as a chamber of the heart or areas around the lung where the CSF can drain and be absorbed.
- Mean while, a valve located along the catheler. Functions of valve is to maintain one-way flow and regulate the rate of CSF flow.
- People who have hydrocephalus usually need a shunt system for the rest of their lives, and regular monitoring is required
VIDEO ON SHUNT PLACEMENT
ENDOSCOPIC THIRD VENTRICULOSTOMY
- The alternative procedure of hydrocephalus's treatment called endoscopic third ventriculostomy. There are only limited number of hydrocephalus's patient that can be treated using this procedure.
- During this treatment, the neurosurgeon used a small camera designed to visualize small and difficult to reach surgical areas.
- After the target surgical area reaches, the neurosurgeon make a tiny hole in the floor of third ventricle. The tiny hole allowing the CSF to bypass the obstruction and flow toward the site of resorption around the surface of the brain.
VIDEO ON ENDOSCOPIC THIRD VENTRICULOSTOMY
Complications of surgery
Both surgical procedures can result in complications. Shunt systems can stop draining cerebrospinal fluid or poorly regulate drainage because of mechanical malfunctions, blockage or infections. The passage created during a ventriculostomy can suddenly close.
Any failure requires prompt attention, surgical revisions or other interventions. Signs and symptoms of problems may include:
- Nausea or vomiting
- Vision problems
- Redness, pain or tenderness of the skin along the path of the shunt tube
- Abdominal pain when the shunt valve is in the abdomen
- Recurrence of any of the initial hydrocephalus symptoms